RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES
CyberLogic is carrying out research and development activities in many areas. The following lists some but not all our endeavors. You may want also to check out our Bibliography for references to our publications and issued patents, as well as visit Who We Are for more information on our present business activities.
Ultrasonic Assessment of Bone: We have been and continue to investigate the use of ultrasound to noninvasively assess bone. The objective is to establish ultrasound as a safe, effective, and non-invasive method for assessing fracture risk, an important component in clinical management of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis afflicts over 20 million people in the U.S., responsible for more than 275,000 hip fractures annually. Currently, the primary means for assessment relies on x-ray densitometric techniques. These methods subject the patient to ionizing radiation, are relatively expensive, and do not always provide good estimates of bone strength. These shortcomings have led to osteoporosis to become one of the world¡¯s most under-diagnosed diseases. Ultrasound offers several potential advantages. It is non-ionizing and relatively inexpensive. Moreover, since ultrasound is a mechanical wave and interacts with bone in a fundamentally different manner than electromagnetic radiation, it may ultimately be able to provide better estimates of bone strength compared with current x-ray (DXA) methods. Our research in ultrasound has recently led to the development of an FDA approved bone sonometer, the UltraScan™ 650, that accurately and reproducibly measures bone mineral density (BMD), without the ionizing radiation of DXA. We are also developing a novel heel ultrasound device, the QRT® 250. The QRT® 250 uses a patented foot-size dependent positioning scheme that enables accurate and reproducible measurements without the need for array transducers. We are also investigating the use of a dual-mode ultrasound technology that assesses the quality of tibial cortical bone. CyberLogic¡¯s ultrasound technology is protected by many issued and pending patents, including in China and India.
Computational Methods in Ultrasonics: This work is directed toward numerically evaluating the solution to the visco-elastic wave equation. This project was originally initiated in order to provide a better understanding of the factors involved in the propagation of ultrasound through bone tissue. This work has led to the development of powerful software packages (Wave2000, Wave2500 and Wave3000) which have application to a general class of two-dimensional, three-dimensional axisymmetric and full three-dimensional ultrasonic wave propagation problems. Information on the software packages may be found at Wave2000, Wave2500 and Wave3000 . The software is used worldwide by thousands of researchers and engineers in several ultrasound fields, such as materials evaluation, flaw detection and imaging.
Three-dimensional Display System: We have developed an entirely new approach to three-dimensional display systems which has many advantages over present methods. Briefly stated, the technology involves recording a three-dimensional scene with M television cameras, where M is greater than or equal to 2, each placed in a distinct position with respect to the scene being recorded, and each producing a separate channel (i.e., view) of recorded data. The M channels are processed at each point in time (i.e., at each image frame) using a proprietary mathematical formulation. This mathematical formulation is a key feature of the technology and provides a comprehensive and coherent framework in which to derive an optimal solution for producing on a specialized display a three-dimensional image of a three-dimensional scene. CyberLogic's proprietary analytic approach can be used with a variety of adapted display technologies, including among others, reflective light devices, liquid crystal displays and light emitting diodes. The technology can be adapted to real time display for 3D television and video, as well as for computer animations and simulations. The technology can be applied to still scenes, and in addition, both analog and digital or mixed analog and digital implementations may be utilized. The invention can find application to various fields, including computer graphics, virtual reality, medical volumetric imaging, and the home video market. The technique has the specific advantages that it provides for true multiviewpoint and autostereoscopic capabilities while providing for the first time a coherent and comprehensive mathematical framework by which the three-dimensional display of three-dimensional scenes may be achieved. In summary, CyberLogic's 3D technology provides for the following advantages and improvements over present 3D systems:
i. True multiviewpoint capabilities, thereby allowing a group of people to view the three-dimensional images from a continuum of viewpoints, and thereby allowing each individual to observe a distinct three-dimensional view;
ii. Autostereoscopic capability, without the use of viewing glasses or any type of head locator/detector means;
iii. A natural and accurate display of the three-dimensional scene, which does not cause or lead to viewer fatigue;
iv. Potential for compatibility with standard (two-dimensional) television technology; and
v. Practicality and cost-effectiveness in comparison with other systems.
See the list of Patents (in the Bibliography) for more information on this technology.
Plain X-ray Bone Densitometry: This research is aimed at the use of plain radiographic x-ray techniques to evaluate bone mineral density. This technique is designed to provide a clinician with a method for accurately determining bone mineral density using a widely available and low cost plain x-ray system. Non-invasive quantitative plain radiographic evaluation of bone in a bony locale of a body is performed by subjecting the bony locale to a broadband collimated x-ray beam having energy in the range of about 20 keV to 150 keV. The method as designed is able to correct for soft tissue thickness and provide accuracies similar to that obtained with much more expensive dual energy x-ray absorptiometric techniques. Three U.S. Patents have been issued for this technology.
Electromagnetic and Acoustic Inverse Scattering: In this research, an unknown object is non-destructively and quantitatively evaluated for a three-dimensional spatial distribution of a set of material constitutive parameters of the unknown object, using a multi-element array-source transducer and a multi-element array-detector transducer located near the unknown object. The array-source transducer exposes the array-detector transducer to a set of source-field patterns pursuant to a set of electrical input signals. An unknown object located near these transducers will be the cause of scattering, thus presenting a scattered-field pattern to the array detector transducer, for each pattern of the set of source-field patterns. In a related computation, a set of training signals is determined by measuring actual scattered fields from a set of known physical objects or evaluating on a computer the scattered fields from a set of computer simulated training objects. A computer, a signal processor and a neural network operate from detector response to the actual or computer simulated and unknown object scattered-field patterns, in each of two modes. In an initial mode, the neural network is "trained" or configured to process a set of transfer functions involved in array-detector response to scattered-field patterns evaluated either from actual data or from computer simulations for the known physical or computer simulated objects, respectively; in another mode, the neural network utilizes its "trained" configuration in application to a set of transfer functions involved in array-detector response to scattered-field patterns produced by an unknown physical object, to generate estimates of the three-dimensional spatial distribution of the material constitutive parameters of the unknown object. In an alternative mode of operation, a set of the Biot poro-elastic material parameters of an unknown object is estimated. This research has a wide range of applications, including among others, geophysical techniques (for example, determining the location of oil underground using acoustic and/or electromagnetic energy), bone assessment (for example, to assess the degree of fracture risk in osteoporosis), breast cancer detection, and to any number of other non-destructive testing applications. This research is the subject of three issued patents
Electromagnetic and Acoustic Interactions with Biological Systems: CyberLogic and/or its associates have been involved with studying the interaction of electromagnetic and acoustic energy with biological systems for many years. This study has involved both the investigation of mechanisms of action and the experimental and theoretical evaluations of the effectiveness of electromagnetic and acoustic exposures. This research is the subject of numerous publications which may be found in the Bibliography.
Other Research and Development Areas: CyberLogic is also involved in other engineering projects, and is continually exploring potential new development projects as well. We would be pleased to discuss our availability to work on any engineering area with prospective clients and/or collaborators. Please feel free to Contact Us.